This page is for those who want to take a deep dive into this water...issue.  
All others, visit: Q and A

Scientifically Speaking:

Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are Important Drinking Water Contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North CarolinaTHE report that brought this issue to the public via the StarNews

Emerging contaminants in NC rivers: Strategies for protecting water quality - P. Lee Ferguson, Ph.D. Associate Professor - Presented at the Sept 28 House Select Committee On River Water Quality in Raleigh, NC.

Chemours has agreed to stop releases of GenX into the Cape Fear River, but production of Nafion by Chemours in Fayetteville is still likely putting other persistent compounds, similar to GenX, in your water source. Nafion is a compound used in Fuel Cells and byproducts were identified by the EPA in the Cape Fear River in 2015

 This study on Nafion identified several significantly altered molecular pathways, including the metabolism of xenobiotics, carbohydrates and lipids; signal transduction; cellular processes; immune system; and signaling molecules and interaction.

Continuing to overlook the vast majority of other PFASs is a major concern for society. This paper provide recommendations for how to proceed with research and cooperation to tackle the vast number of PFASs on the market and in the environment. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b04806

Considering bioaccumulation and exposure to multiple PFCs, the risk of immunotoxicity for humans and wildlife cannot be discounted. This review will discuss current and recently published work exploring the immunomodulatory effects of PFCs in experimental animals and humans. https://www.researchgate.net/…/260030655_Perfluorinated_com…

GenX appears less potent at suppressing TDAR relative to PFOA, but it produces detectable changes in parameters affected by PFOA
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28115649

Serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density and Osteoporosis in women was also associated with PFAS exposure
https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307909/

PFOA induced cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings ;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22273728

Data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS
https://www.researchgate.net/…/23652116_Developmental_toxic…

Book serves as a timely and comprehensive overview of the latest science for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319155173

Here are the chemical structures to the PFECAs identified in Wilmington's drinking water by the Sun et al. 2016 paper. The state's recent water sampling only provides results for GenX, which is only one of these compounds: http://pubs.acs.org/…/acs.e…/suppl_file/ez6b00398_si_001.pdf

GenX Levels Reported by Test America June-July, 2017:  https://adobe.ly/2tXyglL

Swedish reporting findings suggest "flourinated alternatives are likely similar to their predecessors, in terms of physicochemical properties and environmental fate."  From emission sources to human tissues: modelling the exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Report from Netherlands (where GenX contamination from Chemours is also occurring): Evaluation of substances used in the GenX technology by Chemours, Dordrecht

Evaluation of Substances Used in the GenX Technology by Chemours:  Beekman M, Zweers P, Muller A, de Vries W, Janssen P, Zeilmaker M. 2016. RIVM Report 2016-0174: Evaluation of substances used in the GenX technology by Chemours, Dordrecht 

ECHA Toxicological Summary For Ammonium: ECHA Toxicological Summary for Ammonium 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoro-2-(Heptafluoropropoxy)Propanoate.

Comparing the Potency in vivo of PFAS Alternatives and their Predecessors:  Comparing the potency in vivo of PFAS alternatives and their predecessors. Abstract. March 2017.

Absorption, Distribution, Metabolis, Excretion and Kinetics...Following Single Does in Rat, Mouse, and Cynomolgus Monkey: Gannon et al. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and kinetics of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2- (heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid ammonium salt following a single dose in rat, mouse, and cynomolgus monkey. Toxicology 340 (2016) 1–9. 

Aquatic Hazard, Bioaccumulation:  Hoke et al. Aquatic hazard, bioaccumulation and screening risk assessment for ammonium 2,3,3,3- tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate. Chemosphere 149 (2016) 336-342.  

SS Chemours Processing Flow Diagram

Reach Dossier for GenX, which is the European's assessment of the GenX Compound with the Most Complete Data: HERE

Evaluation of Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity: Rae et al. Evaluation of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2- (heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in Sprague–Dawley rats. Toxicology Reports. June 2015. 

It is likely that C8 and Nafion began being discharged in our river beginning 1980.  C8 was likely replaced by GenX beginning 2011.  Here are some health studies related to the chemical type of all these compounds:  

Industry is required under the Toxic Control Substances Act TSCA to file reports to EPA if they find "unreasonable risk to health or to the environment" in unregulated contaminants. Here areDuPont/Chemours filings to EPA under TCSA: https://adobe.ly/2xFbn6X

Filtering Studies: Recommendation on Filtering Perfluorinated Compounds  

Legalese: 

LEGAL ACTIONS TAKEN AGAINST CHEMOURS SINCE JUNE, 2017:

Federal-subpoena-to-DEQ

CFPUA - 60 day Notice of Citizen Suit

Civitas - 60 day letter of intent to sue

NC DOJ on behalf of NC DEQ - Summons

DEQ - notice of intent to suspend permit

DEQ Notice of Violation - groundwater

DEQ: COMPLAINT, MOTION FOR TEMPORARY RESTRAINING ORDER, AND MOTION FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTIVE RELIEF
 

PARTIAL CONSENT ORDER - SEPT 8, 2017 Ruling by Bladen County Superior Court

CHEMOURS RESPONSE TO DEQ LEGAL ACTIONS: 

CHEMOURS PERMITS:

HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE MEETING ON NC RIVER WATER QUALITY PRESENTATIONS BY CFPUA, DEQ, DHHS, UNCW, NC COASTAL FED, DUKE:

FEDERAL LAWS RELATING TO UNREGULATED and EMERGING CONTAMINANTS:

FILINGS BY DUPONT/CHEMOURS REQUIRED BY TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT:

  • Industry is required to file reports to EPA if they find "unreasonable risk to health or to the environment" in unregulated contaminants; Here are DuPont/Chemours filings:  https://adobe.ly/2xFbn6X

DHHS RISK Assessments:

June 12, 2017
July 14, 2017

DEQ GenX Investigation: HERE  

NPDES Permit Renewal Application - April 2016: HERE


CFPUA:

Market Watch - Chemours Company