Legacy and Emerging Perfluoroalkyl Substances Are Important Drinking Water Contaminants in the Cape Fear River Watershed of North Carolina - THE report that brought this issue to the public via the StarNews
Emerging contaminants in NC rivers: Strategies for protecting water quality - P. Lee Ferguson, Ph.D. Associate Professor - Presented at the Sept 28 House Select Committee On River Water Quality in Raleigh, NC.
"Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in the Environment: Terminology, Classification, and Origins" - 2011 paper providing overview of PFASs
Chemours has agreed to stop releases of GenX into the Cape Fear River, but production of Nafion by Chemours in Fayetteville is still likely putting other persistent compounds, similar to GenX, in your water source. Nafion is a compound used in Fuel Cells and byproducts were identified by the EPA in the Cape Fear River in 2015
This study on Nafion identified several significantly altered molecular pathways, including the metabolism of xenobiotics, carbohydrates and lipids; signal transduction; cellular processes; immune system; and signaling molecules and interaction.
Continuing to overlook the vast majority of other PFASs is a major concern for society. This paper provide recommendations for how to proceed with research and cooperation to tackle the vast number of PFASs on the market and in the environment. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b04806
Considering bioaccumulation and exposure to multiple PFCs, the risk of immunotoxicity for humans and wildlife cannot be discounted. This review will discuss current and recently published work exploring the immunomodulatory effects of PFCs in experimental animals and humans. https://www.researchgate.net/…/260030655_Perfluorinated_com…
GenX appears less potent at suppressing TDAR relative to PFOA, but it produces detectable changes in parameters affected by PFOA
Serum PFAS concentrations were associated with lower bone mineral density and Osteoporosis in women was also associated with PFAS exposure
PFOA induced cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos and hatchlings ;https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22273728
Data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS
Book serves as a timely and comprehensive overview of the latest science for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319155173
Here are the chemical structures to the PFECAs identified in Wilmington's drinking water by the Sun et al. 2016 paper. The state's recent water sampling only provides results for GenX, which is only one of these compounds: http://pubs.acs.org/…/acs.e…/suppl_file/ez6b00398_si_001.pdf
GenX Levels Reported by Test America June-July, 2017: https://adobe.ly/2tXyglL
Swedish reporting findings suggest "flourinated alternatives are likely similar to their predecessors, in terms of physicochemical properties and environmental fate." From emission sources to human tissues: modelling the exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
Report from Netherlands (where GenX contamination from Chemours is also occurring): Evaluation of substances used in the GenX technology by Chemours, Dordrecht
Evaluation of Substances Used in the GenX Technology by Chemours: Beekman M, Zweers P, Muller A, de Vries W, Janssen P, Zeilmaker M. 2016. RIVM Report 2016-0174: Evaluation of substances used in the GenX technology by Chemours, Dordrecht
ECHA Toxicological Summary For Ammonium: ECHA Toxicological Summary for Ammonium 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoro-2-(Heptafluoropropoxy)Propanoate.
Comparing the Potency in vivo of PFAS Alternatives and their Predecessors: Comparing the potency in vivo of PFAS alternatives and their predecessors. Abstract. March 2017.
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolis, Excretion and Kinetics...Following Single Does in Rat, Mouse, and Cynomolgus Monkey: Gannon et al. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and kinetics of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2- (heptafluoropropoxy)propanoic acid ammonium salt following a single dose in rat, mouse, and cynomolgus monkey. Toxicology 340 (2016) 1–9.
Aquatic Hazard, Bioaccumulation: Hoke et al. Aquatic hazard, bioaccumulation and screening risk assessment for ammonium 2,3,3,3- tetrafluoro-2-(heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate. Chemosphere 149 (2016) 336-342.
Evaluation of Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity: Rae et al. Evaluation of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of ammonium 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2- (heptafluoropropoxy)-propanoate in Sprague–Dawley rats. Toxicology Reports. June 2015.
It is likely that C8 and Nafion began being discharged in our river beginning 2000 and 1977 respectively. C8 was likely replaced by GenX beginning 2012 or 2013. Here are some health studies related to the chemical type of all these compounds:
- https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206449/ - Ulcerative Colitis and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Highly Exposed Population of Community Residents and Workers in the Mid-Ohio Valley
- https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/15-09869/ Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6–9 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project
- https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306613/ Breastfeeding: A Potential Excretion Route for Mothers and Implications for Infant Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acid
- https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306707/ Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)
Industry is required under the Toxic Control Substances Act TSCA to file reports to EPA if they find "unreasonable risk to health or to the environment" in unregulated contaminants. Here areDuPont/Chemours filings to EPA under TCSA: https://adobe.ly/2xFbn6X
Filtering Studies: Recommendation on Filtering Perfluorinated Compounds